Values refer to stable life goals that people have, reflecting on what is most important to them.
These are established throughout one’s life as a result of the accumulating life experiences and tend to be relatively stable.
The values that are important to people tend to affect the types of decisions they make, how they perceive their environment, and their actual behaviors.
Moreover, people are more likely to accept job offers when the company possesses the values people care about.
Value attainment is one reason why people stay in a company, and when an organization does not help them to attain their values, they are more likely to decide to leave if they are dissatisfied with the job itself.
Rokeach divided values into two types.
Two types of values are;
- Terminal Values.
- Instrumental Values.
Terminal Values are most desirable to humans and Instrumental values are views of how the human desires should be achieved.
These are values that we think are most important or most desirable.
These refer to desirable end states of existence, the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.
They include happiness, self-respect, recognition, inner harmony, leading a prosperous life, and professional excellence.
Instrumental values deal with views on acceptable modes of conductor means of achieving the terminal values.
These include being honest, sincere, ethical, and being ambitious. These values are more focused on personality traits and character.
There are many typologies of values. One of the most established surveys to assess individual values is the Rokeach Value Survey.
This survey lists 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values in alphabetical order.
They are given below:
|A comfortable life (a prosperous life)||Ambitious (hardworking)|
|An exciting life (a stimulating, active life)||Broadminded (open minded)|
|A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution)||Capable (competent, efficient)|
|A world of peace (free of war and conflict)||Cheerful ( lighthearted, joyful)|
|A world of beauty (the beauty of nature and the arts)||Clean (neat, tidy)|
|Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all)||Courageous (standing up for your beliefs)|
|Family security (taking care of loved ones)||Forgiving (willing to pardon)|
|Freedom (independence, free choice)||Helpful (working for the welfare of others)|
|Happiness ( contentedness)||Honest (sincere, truthful)|
|Inner harmony (freedom from inner conflict)||Imaginative (daring, creative)|
|Mature love (sexual and spiritual intimacy)||Independent (self-reliant, self-sufficient)|
|National security (protection from attack)||Intellectual (intelligent, reflective)|
|Pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life)||Logical (consistent, rational)|
|Salvation (saved, eternal)||Loving (affectionate, tender)|
|SSelf-respect(self-esteem)||Obedient (dutiful, respectful)|
|Social recognition (respect, admiration)||Polite (courteous, well-mannered)|
|True friend (close companionship)||Responsible (dependable, reliable)|
|Wisdom ( a mature understanding of life)||Self-controlled (restrained, self-disciplined)|
The values a person holds will affect his or her employment.
For example, someone who has an orientation toward strong stimulation may pursue extreme sports and select an occupation that involves fast action and high risks, such as firefighter, police officer, or emergency medical doctor.
Someone who has a drive for achievement may more readily act as an entrepreneur.
Several studies confirm that the RVS values vary among groups. People in the same occupations or categories (e.g. corporate managers, union members, parents, students) tend to hold similar values.
For instance, one study compared corporate executives, members of the steelworkers’ union, and members of a community activist group.
Although a good deal of overlap was found among the three groups, there were also some very significant differences.
The activists had value preferences that were quite different from those of the other two groups.
They ranked “equality” as their most important terminal value, executives and union members ranked this value 12 and 13, respectively. Activists ranked “helpful” as their second-highest instrumental value.
The other two groups both ranked it 14. These differences are important, because executives, union members, and activists all have a vested interest in what corporations do.